The article offers an analytical glimpse at some interesting topics in the academic discussion of the current state of affairs in the sphere of migration and integration of migrants in Germany. Highlighted are such questions as: what is the essence of the German “welcome culture” towards migrants and especially refugees, how has it changed in 2015‑2016, along with people’s attitude towards refugees, and what are implications of this change; how will the new immigration wave affect development of German civil society and the concept of German identity. It is stated that the 2015 refugee crisis made Germany not only fully accept it being an Einwanderungsland (country of immigration), but also marked a bifurcation point in its integration policy, which from now on has to transform from an up-down to a multidirectional one in the sense it requires much more active involvement of civil society in order to cope with the new challenges posed by immigration. One of the key such challenges for Germany is to successfully adopt practices of long-term interaction with refugees and their integration into society. The new type of society, which seems to be forming in Germany, can be characterized as “postmigration society” and “society of ultra diversity”: its dynamics of development has not been thoroughly studied and requires special analysis.