This article is inspired by the provisions of the new fundamental scientific research of V.V. Naumkin, dedicated to the early stage of the Soviet-Saudi relations – “Failed Partnership. Soviet Diplomacy in Saudi Arabia in the Period between Two World Wars”. The place of the “diplomatic breakthrough to Arabia”, in the system of the USSR’s connections with countries of the Middle East and the Islamic world, is shown. For Russia, the political situation in the Gulf region is of fundamental importance due to the size of its resource potential, its significant role in world energy, its geographical proximity, and the influence of Arabian countries on the Muslim population of our country. The relative political stability and economic weight of the Arabian monarchies are the basis for the new Arabian vector of Russia’s Middle Eastern policy. The influence of the monarchies of the Persian Gulf zone, especially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is growing in the region. The author tries to answer questions regarding the opportunities and prospects for establishing partnership relations between Russia and Saudi Arabia. The most realistic areas for closer ties are cooperation in resolving regional conflicts and combating international terrorism, creating a collective security zone in the Persian Gulf area, coordinating actions on the oil market, and bringing economic relations to a new qualitative level.