discourse analysis; critical school; post-fundamentalism; Frankfurt school; avant-garde; neo-Marxism; neoliberalism; values.
Understanding discourse as the special semiotic dimension of political reality, we consider the evolution of the practices of criticizing it. In other world struggle for language is regarded as entirely political. Initially, this approach was associated with revolutionary transformations (attempts to overturn the old symbolic order and create a new language of revolution). Then, under the influence of the avant-garde, there were established special forms of political practices that were aimed at discourse structures: anarchists tried to create an anti-hierarchical language; American Yippies seek to form outsidedness own space; in France leaders of Situationist International developed the practice of detournement (flipping). Only the latter turned to be politically successful until the present day. Under the influence of leftist political thought and the Avant-guard critical discourse studies became an academic (research) project. There are two stages of its development. The first is connected to criticizing discourse as a repressive totality (G. Marcuse, R. Bart and J. Baudrillard). Since the 1970s. under the influence of the genealogical project of M. Foucault and development of interpretative and constructivist paradigms in the social sciences, a critical analysis of discourse increasingly focuses on destroying specific symbolic orders, essayist concepts, as well as everyday language, which, in fact, according to critical linguists, imbued with ideologies. Marxist ideal of “universal liberation” was replaced by neoliberal ideal of equality, with an emphasis on the effectiveness of communication and human rights. Critical discourse studies became less “philosophical” and more analytical; forms of critique also have changed – from external to internal and immanent.